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How to improve special endurance


Special endurance in such types, as walking, running, on average, long-distance, marathon running, daily running and longer runs is the leading quality that maintains the desired speed of movement throughout the course.

Because the biological mechanisms of appearance of different types of endurance, depending on the duration and intensity of exercise fundamentally or essentially different, and the choice of means and methods must be appropriate. Thus, in the speed-power kinds of endurance

is the ability of nerve cells and muscles to work actively in the conditions of lack of oxygen mainly due to the accumulated internal energy – anaerobic endurance.

With increasing duration of continuous exercise endurance depends on coordinated work of locomotor system, internal organs and from the “performance” of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of an athlete in the constant and necessary in the delivery of oxygen to tissues and economical use – spending – aerobic endurance.

Between these types of endurance, means and methods of their development there are mixed in different proportions exercises aerobic-anaerobic focus.

For example, continuous running is most clearly illustrates this relationship between speed and duration of movements: increase in time leads to decrease in speed and Vice versa, increase speed, especially above the critical (at which oxygen consumption reaches a maximum), quickly leads to a reduction in the duration of running.

For speed-power kinds can distinguish three trends in the development of special endurance: exercise (at 80% or more) in the sprint exercises, as well as in jumping and throwing events, which occupies an intermediate position between them.

Special endurance strength of character develops repetitions of exercises with the manifestation of sufficiently high power voltages in the range of 75-80% (of maximum power) and is largely dependent on the strength level of the athlete. Short powerful muscle contractions at the complicated circulation and with breath, straining effort form the adaptive reactions of the body, the muscles of which are acutely and constantly feel the lack of oxygen and energy substances. There is also the economization of resources consumption in the short period of execution of the exercise.

Special endurance in the sprint events over the entire range of distances from the energy point of view due to the power and the capacity of the anaerobic processes. As for the first 10 work with the maximum intensity occurs glycolysis, and by the end of this time the contents of lactic acid (lactate) in the muscle tissue increases 5 times. What is the main cause of the coming of heaviness in the muscles and loss of ability to relax. High level of special endurance in these species is associated with the constant improvement of the ability to relax in a short phase of motor actions.

The primary tool for the development of special endurance in each direction is repeated, until exhausted, the execution of the repetitions of the training options for competitions and special exercises in one lesson. Pulse modes when performing specific exercises: cross-country, jumping, power, and a quick run for the purpose of development of the special endurance needs to achieve high performance – 180 beats/min (30 beats per 10 s) and maximum values.

The most common discontinuous method of repetition special series of exercises with intervals of rest between repetitions and series to reduce the heart rate to 120-132 BPM (20-22 shots in 10 sec).

The number of repetitions of the training options competitive exercise, for example, the long jump with short and medium speed runs, strength training of local action (to failure), throwing and throws in the zone 90% of the maximum should not exceed 3-4 times. With large and full speed runs and strength exercises overall impact with large weights, and throwing shots to result in 1.5-2 times their number in the competition. Each approach should be stowed in 5-10 with a time limit, resting between sets to 180 ° C.

The length of the jumps and the weight of the weights determine the number of repetitions as in multiple jumps and exercises with weights. The higher these indicators (length and weight) in General a certain number of repetitions in one lesson, the more special endurance corresponds to the competitive exercise.

The most effective methods of development of special endurance in these sports on the example of jumpers in length are:

– perform the estimations in jumping and running in the control segments (straight from the start) competitive exercise to reduce the rest interval to 90-180;

– execution of complexes 3-5 special strength exercises series with the reduced rest intervals to 60 seconds.

– perform special jumping exercises and Jogging path. In these circumstances there is a possibility to exceed the length of the jumps and the speed attained in normal conditions, and thus perform more repetitions.

For example, the most effective tool for developing speed endurance is the systematic propagana distances of 150-300 m (200-600 m for runners in the 400 meters). The volume and speed of running of the segments are planned, the approximate time is determined by adding to the best personal result in the number of seconds specified in table 3. But for sprinters and jumpers, B – for 400 m runners

At best the result by 100 m (10,8-11,2  the time taken to run lengths of 150, 200 and 300 m are shown in parentheses.

Table. The approximate time taken to run segments in annual cycles is determined by adding the specified seconds for the best results.