Morphological and functional criteria of adaptation to physical stress Adaptation
1. The characteristics and mechanisms of adaptation of the athlete to physical stress
In the process of adaptation to physical stress:
a) increases the ability of the athlete to perform more work;
b) do it with more intensity and more economical;
b) increases the resistance (resistance) of the cells and organs to changes in the internal environment of the event.
According to Meyerson, Amosov, Bendett, etc. every body trains the intensity of its specific functions . muscle strength and length of contractions, gland secretion, nervous knot-frequency impulses of neurons. But all bodies are trained through external activities of the whole organism, or rather through his muscle activity .
Increasing the reserve capacity of the athlete during training due to the fact that during operation are not only the processes of dissimilation . but the process of assimilation .
The characteristic features of adaptation of the athlete to physical activity :
1. Hypertrophy of the body;
2. The increase in the ratio of capillaries and muscle fibres during adaptation to prolonged stress aerobic nature);
3. The increase in the concentration of myoglobin;
4. Increased activity of enzymes;
5. The increase in ATPase activity of myosin;
6. Increase the capacity of the mechanisms responsible for the transport of ions CA + and muscle relaxation;
7. Improving the efficiency and utilization of oxygen and other problems.
In the process of adaptation to physical loads occur structural, biochemical and functional changes in the running bodies.
The greatest coaching in the effect of load, which bring the body to the limit of the physiological norm.
What mechanism underlies the increase of fitness of the athlete in the process of long-term adaptation to physical stress?
If the concept of Meyerson about adaptation, the increase in the activity of the functioning of operating systems in a systematic sports training leads to the formation of the structural changes that fundamentally increase the capacity of the systems that are responsible for adaptation to the load.
The activating effect of increased function in the structure of the body occurs through the genetic apparatus of the cell (HA). The relationship between a function and HA is two-sided. A direct connection is that the HA through a system of RNA “patterns” and the “make” function. Feedback is that “the intensity of functioning of structures” – the number of functions per unit mass of the body; somehow controls the activity of the genetic apparatus. It is characteristic that while “functions closely in structure,” until then, it will hypertrophy and increased mass of the organ. The number of functions via HA stimulates structural changes in the organ. Increased structure provides a higher function that is the basis of growth of fitness. The constant increase in physical activity is the key to improving the training level of the athlete, reducing training loads, leading to a decrease in the number of functions performed by 1 g of tissue, corresponds to the situation when the function is too “spacious in structure”, resulting in reduced intensity of protein synthesis with subsequent removal of excess structures.
In order to increase the level of special performance, it is necessary that each subsequent work has begun on the background of high efficiency. Only EIB-load causing shifts in operating systems on the verge of physiological norm, increasing the magnitude of these shifts to moderate overload” stimulate “standby power” operating systems.
On osobennosti the morphofunctional state of the different systems of the body arising in the process of adaptation to sports training, referred to as physiological indicators of fitness .
Distinguish between indicators of fitness in the state of muscular rest, when the standard load and load limit capacity.
2. Indicators of fitness at rest.
The Central nervous system . A systematic muscular activity is accompanied by increased lability of nerve cells, the activity of oxidative and other enzymes. I trained, especially for high-speed work, the increased mobility of nervous processes. This is manifested in the shortening of the latent period of motor responses, clarifying differentiation and increasing the speed of information processing. For athletes-stayers are characterized by a high steadiness of nervous processes.
The locomotor system . Morfologicheskie changes . Bone tissue thickens, bones are formed of roughness, projections, increasing the transverse dimensions of the bones, thickened cortical layer, thereby increasing the mechanical strength of bones.
Increases the mass and volume of the skeletal muscles, especially performing and static power voltage, which is accompanied by increase in the weight of the body. This is facilitated by the loss of water and fat during exercise. Hypertrophy of skeletal muscle has been associated with greater improvement in their blood supply. Increases the number of capillaries in skeletal muscle. These changes are more pronounced in exercising to prolonged cyclic operation
Biochemical changes . a) increases the content of proteins in the sarcoplasm and contractile protein of myofibrils-myosin; b) increases the amount of myoglobin, which increases the oxygen capacity of the muscles and contributes to the intensification of oxidative processes;
Functional shifts . a) increases the excitability and lability of muscles; b) increases muscle strength; b) improving the ability of muscles to quickly relax; g) in the trained muscle hardness at arbitrary voltage and, when the relaxation is smaller than untrained.
The blood system . With the growth of fitness increases total blood volume, the content of erythrocytes and hemoglobin, becomes greater oxygen capacity of blood.
Leukocyte formula I trained, especially among the stayers, changed in the direction of increasing the number of lymphocytes.
In the blood plasma increases the capacity of buffer systems, preventing the blood from sudden PH shifts to the acidic side. Alkaline reserve of blood in athletes increased.
Metabolism and energy . With proper diet in athletes usually occurs nitrogenous equilibrium. In trenirovka the body increased carbohydrate reserves, which is very important to improve efficiency. Fat reserves are relatively reduced.
The main exchange is within the standard value or more is lowered.
Respiratory system . In trained athletes are well-developed respiratory muscles, increased vital capacity (VC) and maximum voluntary ventilation ( MVV). The highest values of this index reaches have specialized in sports cyclical nature. International airlines have trained athletes of 150-250 l/min, This rate is more variable than that of VC, and in the process of growth of fitness increases.
The fitness is accompanied by a decrease in respiratory rate at rest to 8-10 1 min and increased depth of respiration to 700-800 ml. Respiratory minute volume (MOU) in athletes varies slightly and is 6-9 L.
The 0 2 consumption at rest during training, as a rule, almost not changed.
Cardiovascular system (CVS ). Adaptive changes are manifested in the form of: a) hypertrophy of muscle fibers; b) vascularization; C) increasing the amount of myoglobin, glycogen; d) the increase in adrenergic sensitivity of muscle fibers; d) bradycardia; (e) sinus arrhythmia; g) reduction of systolic () and minute volume (IOC) circulation; h) change of ECG parameters: reduction of P-wave, zoom teeth – R ,T, the segment offset of the T above the contour.
Cardiac hypertrophy and bradycardia more pronounced in exercising to prolonged cyclic operation. In trained athletes are bradycardia is often combined with sinus arrhythmia, which indicates the ability of the heart to adapt quickly to changing business conditions.
The blood pressure (BP) in athletes within the age norm.